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Pentagon explains odd transfer of 175 million IP addresses to obscure company

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Illustration of Internet data, with long strings of numbers laid out on a grid.

The US Department of Defense puzzled Internet experts by apparently transferring control of tens of millions of dormant IP addresses to an obscure Florida company just before President Donald Trump left the White House, but the Pentagon has finally offered a partial explanation for why it happened. The Defense Department says it still owns the addresses but that it is using a third-party company in a “pilot” project to conduct security research.

“Minutes before Trump left office, millions of the Pentagon’s dormant IP addresses sprang to life” was the title of a Washington Post article on Saturday. Literally three minutes before Joe Biden became president, a company called Global Resource Systems LLC “discreetly announced to the world’s computer networks a startling development: It now was managing a huge unused swath of the Internet that, for several decades, had been owned by the US military,” the Post said.

The number of Pentagon-owned IP addresses announced by the company rose to 56 million by late January and 175 million by April, making it the world’s largest announcer of IP addresses in the IPv4 global routing table.

“The theories were many,” the Post article said. “Did someone at the Defense Department sell off part of the military’s vast collection of sought-after IP addresses as Trump left office? Had the Pentagon finally acted on demands to unload the billions of dollars worth of IP address space the military has been sitting on, largely unused, for decades?”

The Post said it got an answer from the Defense Department on Friday in the form of a statement from the director of “an elite Pentagon unit known as the Defense Digital Service.” The Post wrote:

Brett Goldstein, the DDS’s director, said in a statement that his unit had authorized a “pilot effort” publicizing the IP space owned by the Pentagon.

“This pilot will assess, evaluate, and prevent unauthorized use of DoD IP address space,” Goldstein said. “Additionally, this pilot may identify potential vulnerabilities.”

Goldstein described the project as one of the Defense Department’s “many efforts focused on continually improving our cyber posture and defense in response to advanced persistent threats. We are partnering throughout DoD to ensure potential vulnerabilities are mitigated.”

“SWAT team of nerds”

The 6-year-old DDS consists of “82 engineers, data scientists, and computer scientists” who “worked on the much-publicized ‘hack the Pentagon’ program” and a variety of other projects tackling some of the hardest technology problems faced by the military, a Department of Defense article said in October 2020. Goldstein has called the unit a “SWAT team of nerds.”

The Defense Department did not say what the unit’s specific objectives are in its project with Global Resource Systems, “and Pentagon officials declined to say why Goldstein’s unit had used a little-known Florida company to carry out the pilot effort rather than have the Defense Department itself ‘announce’ the addresses through BGP [Border Gateway Protocol] messages—a far more routine approach,” the Post said.

Still, the government’s explanation piqued the interest of Doug Madory, director of Internet analysis at network-security company Kentik.

“I interpret this to mean that the objectives of this effort are twofold,” Madory wrote in a blog post Saturday. “First, to announce this address space to scare off any would-be squatters, and secondly, to collect a massive amount of background Internet traffic for threat intelligence.”

New company remains mysterious

The Washington Post and Associated Press weren’t able to dig up many details about Global Resource Systems. “The company did not return phone calls or emails from The Associated Press. It has no web presence, though it has the domain grscorp.com,” an AP story yesterday said. “Its name doesn’t appear on the directory of its Plantation, Florida, domicile, and a receptionist drew a blank when an AP reporter asked for a company representative at the office earlier this month. She found its name on a tenant list and suggested trying email. Records show the company has not obtained a business license in Plantation.” The AP apparently wasn’t able to track down people associated with the company.

The AP said that the Pentagon “has not answered many basic questions, beginning with why it chose to entrust management of the address space to a company that seems not to have existed until September.” Global Resource Systems’ name “is identical to that of a firm that independent Internet fraud researcher Ron Guilmette says was sending out email spam using the very same Internet routing identifier,” the AP continued. “It shut down more than a decade ago. All that differs is the type of company. This one’s a limited liability corporation. The other was a corporation. Both used the same street address in Plantation, a suburb of Fort Lauderdale.”

The AP did find out that the Defense Department still owns the IP addresses, saying that “a Defense Department spokesman, Russell Goemaere, told the AP on Saturday that none of the newly announced space has been sold.”

Bigger than China Telecom and Comcast

Network experts were stumped by the emergence of Global Resource Systems for a while. Madory called it “a great mystery.”

At 11:57 am EST on January 20, three minutes before the Trump administration officially came to an end, “[a]n entity that hadn’t been heard from in over a decade began announcing large swaths of formerly unused IPv4 address space belonging to the US Department of Defense,” Madory wrote. Global Resource Systems is labeled AS8003 and GRS-DOD in BGP records.

Madory wrote:

By late January, AS8003 was announcing about 56 million IPv4 addresses, making it the sixth largest AS [autonomous system] in the IPv4 global routing table by originated address space. By mid-April, AS8003 dramatically increased the amount of formerly unused DoD address space that it announced to 175 million unique addresses.

Following the increase, AS8003 became, far and away, the largest AS in the history of the Internet as measured by originated IPv4 space. By comparison, AS8003 now announces 61 million more IP addresses than the now-second biggest AS in the world, China Telecom, and over 100 million more addresses than Comcast, the largest residential Internet provider in the US.

In fact, as of April 20, 2021, AS8003 is announcing so much IPv4 space that 5.7 percent of the entire IPv4 global routing table is presently originated by AS8003. In other words, more than one out of every 20 IPv4 addresses is presently originated by an entity that didn’t even appear in the routing table at the beginning of the year.

In mid-March, “astute contributors to the NANOG listserv highlighted the oddity of massive amounts of DoD address space being announced by what appeared to be a shell company,” Madory noted.

DoD has “massive ranges” of IPv4 space

The Defense Department “was allocated numerous massive ranges of IPv4 address space” decades ago, but “only a portion of that address space was ever utilized (i.e. announced by the DoD on the Internet),” Madory wrote. Expanding on his point that the Defense Department may want to “scare off any would-be squatters,” he wrote that “there is a vast world of fraudulent BGP routing out there. As I’ve documented over the years, various types of bad actors use unrouted address space to bypass blocklists in order to send spam and other types of malicious traffic.”

On the Defense Department’s goal of collecting “background Internet traffic for threat intelligence,” Madory noted that “there is a lot of background noise that can be scooped up when announcing large ranges of IPv4 address space.”

Potential routing problems

The emergence of previously dormant IP addresses could lead to routing problems. In 2018, AT&T unintentionally blocked its home-Internet customers from Cloudflare’s new DNS service because the Cloudflare service and the AT&T gateway were using the same IP address of 1.1.1.1.

Madory wrote:

For decades, Internet routing operated with a widespread assumption that ASes didn’t route these prefixes on the Internet (perhaps because they were canonical examples from networking textbooks). According to their blog post soon after the launch [of DNS resolver 1.1.1.1], Cloudflare received “~10Gbps of unsolicited background traffic” on their interfaces.

And that was just for 512 IPv4 addresses! Of course, those addresses were very special, but it stands to reason that 175 million IPv4 addresses will attract orders of magnitude more traffic [from] misconfigured devices and networks that mistakenly assumed that all of this DoD address space would never see the light of day.

Madory’s conclusion was that the new statement from the Defense Department “answers some questions,” but “much remains a mystery.” It isn’t clear why the Defense Department didn’t simply announce the address space itself instead of using an obscure outside entity, and it’s unclear why the project came “to life in the final moments of the previous administration,” he wrote.

But something good might come out of it, Madory added: “We likely won’t get all of the answers anytime soon, but we can certainly hope that the DoD uses the threat intel gleaned from the large amounts of background traffic for the benefit of everyone. Maybe they could come to a NANOG conference and present about the troves of erroneous traffic being sent their way.”

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The DeanBeat: The FOMO over the decline of triple-A games is unwarranted

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Public offerings of game companies took off in Q1 2021.

Did you miss GamesBeat Summit 2021? Watch on-demand here! 


“I must not fear.
Fear is the mind-killer.
Fear is the little-death that brings total obliteration.
I will face my fear.
I will permit it to pass over me and through me.
And when it has gone past I will turn the inner eye to see its path.
Where the fear has gone there will be nothing. Only I will remain.”

— Frank Herbert, the litany against fear in Dune.

We had another panic this week about the decline of triple-A video games, and it showed that we have a lot of fear of missing out as fans. But I think some of this fear is based on a misunderstanding about the industry’s unique status as both a business and an art form. Hardcore gamers like the art form, while business people want to get rich from it. They don’t always trust each other’s motivations.

Ubisoft’s chief financial officer Frederick Duguet set off the panic among hardcore gamers when he said in an earnings call that putting out three or four triple-A games is not “a proper indication of [Ubisoft’s] value-creation dynamics.” Instead, Ubisoft expects to make generate more revenue from free-to-play live-service games. And so it had announced The Division: Heartland, a free-to-play shooter. Many fans took Duguet’s comments to mean that Ubisoft is going to make fewer triple-A games. So Ubisoft’s PR department had to intercede with a clarification the next day.

“Our intention is to deliver a diverse line-up of games that players will love – across all platforms. We are excited to be investing more in free-to-play experiences, however we want to clarify that this does not mean reducing our AAA offering,” a spokesperson said in a statement. “Our aim is to continue to deliver premium experiences to players such as Far Cry 6, Rainbow Six Quarantine, Riders Republic and Skull & Bones to name a few while also expanding our free-to-play portfolio and strengthening our brands to reach even more players.”

In other words, Ubisoft reassured fans that it’s not taking away your triple-A games. By extension, I will argue that all of the fads of the moment — nonfungible tokens (NFTs), blockchain, augmented reality, free-to-play mobile games, live services on FIFA Soccer, esports, user-generated content, remakes and retro games — are not taking away from your triple-A games. As Jeff Grubb pointed out, they’re additive. The game industry is expected to hit $175.8 billion in 2021, according to game and entertainment data firm Newzoo. As an industry, it is taking away time from sports, movies, music, TV, and other hobbies.

Above: Public offerings of game companies took off in Q1 2021.

Image Credit: InvestGame

The industry has enough money to go around. Everything in games is getting funded. Investors are pouring money into public offerings, acquisitions, and game startup investments. Even indie game makers are benefiting from this, and they continue to be the creative heartbeat of the industry, supplying the innovative games like Hades that triple-A game companies aren’t making. The first quarter saw $39 billion invested into the game industry in 280 announced transactions, according to InvestGame. That quarterly amount was higher than $33 billion reported for all of 2020.

Will mobile games get more budgeted money? Yes. Mobile games are 51% of the market and are growing. PC and consoles games could actually shrink in 2021, based on delays shipping big games during the pandemic. That’s going to happen, as it’s easier to invest in mobile games and increasingly harder to invest in PC and console games, which are often delayed.

“That’s kind of the dirty little secret of the video game business is that it is a business, after all, and we need to do, we need to create an audience, we need to create a revenue stream the cash flow in order to continue to create new and exciting games for people to play,” said Shawn Layden, former chairman of Sony Worldwide Game Studios, said at our recent GamesBeat Summit 2021 event.

You may not trust my answer here, but this is a good thing. The strategy that I see everybody pursuing right now makes perfect sense, and it will be good for all of games.

Why this is good news

First, mobile and free-to-play triple-A games are expanding the market. They are the tip of the spear when it comes to penetrating new markets and convincing people that games are a good use of their time. We’re at 3 billion gamers and growing, but not everybody on the planet is a gamer yet. By making the price of games more accessible, we enable games to reach more people. Those people will pick up the habit. They will find the new point of entry, and they will become gamers, hopefully for life. They will also keep playing these accessible and less time-consuming games even in periods of life when they’re busier, like when they have kids or have to study a lot or have to pour a lot of energy into work.

The key is that they are the point of entry into the vastness of games. Consider Call of Duty. Bobby Kotick, CEO of Activision Blizzard, had some foresight in getting three major game studios to make Call of Duty games in parallel, so that a new one could be launched every year without a sacrifice in the quality of the triple-A game. That wasn’t an easy process, and many accused Kotick of wrecking the franchise by making it too frequent. But the developers didn’t run into creative exhaustion. They converted players into wanting to play Call of Duty every year.

Now nine studios or so are working on Call of Duty. That allowed Activision Blizzard to add the free-to-play games Call of Duty: Mobile and Call of Duty: Warzone. These became the new points of entry for Call of Duty. Call of Duty also went cross-platform so you could play with friends wherever they were. You could start at the top of the funnel, playing for free. Within Warzone, all you had to do to upgrade to the $60 premium game was click a few buttons. Analyst Michael Pachter of Wedbush Securities estimates that Call of Duty premium game sales went up from around 25 million a year to 35 million a year. The result was record performance for Activision Blizzard in 2020. Now people play Call of Duty every year. And if you follow what Kotick said at our GamesBeat Summit 2021 event, increasing the share spent in the day by creating some kind of Call of Duty metaverse is probably the next goal.

Kotick said that the 10,000-person company now needs at least 2,000 more people to meet its production obligations. It’s making triple-A games like Diablo 4, but it is also making the free-to-play Diablo Immortal game for mobile. Do you see the pattern? Kotick is using the same strategy of Call of Duty with Diablo. Mobile and free-to-play games are the onramps to the franchise and you can expect to see Activision Blizzard execute on the same strategy for every major franchise.

No fear

Skull & Bones is looking awesome.

Above: Skull & Bones is coming one of these days from Ubisoft.

Image Credit: Ubisoft

The financial success of Call of Duty and Activision Blizzard isn’t lost on Electronic Arts, which is making a mobile game based on Battlefield. That will be the onramp for Battlefield VI, the triple-A game that is in production. EA has a mobile Apex Legends game that will be the onramp for the free-to-play Apex Legends, and maybe Respawn will fill out the roster with a triple-A Apex Legends (or maybe Titanfall) premium game.

With Ubisoft, the free-to-play The Division: The Heartland can be an onramp to The Division or The Division 2 games. And so on. These efforts are not going to cannibalize each other, in my opinion. They are going to make it more likely that players will become hobbyists. The hobby will not just be games. It will be more specific than that. The hobby will become Call of Duty, or Diablo, or Apex Legends, or The Division. These franchises will command all of our time, and people will constantly cycle through them from the top of the funnel to the bottom.

On our GamesBeat Summit panel, Layden was more focused on Sony’s own specific challenges. But he was right in that platform owners — and by extension the whole game industry — has the responsibility of expanding the market. The lower the price point, the lower risk it is for the industry. Hollywood, by contrast, has been slow to lower the ticket prices of movies. In fact, it raised them just in time for the pandemic. It’s no surprise that streaming movie services took off during the pandemic because they were cheaper. The price spectrum of games captures all the right players.

Hardcore gamers should also be aware that what they want to play isn’t what everyone wants to play. As the game industry expands out of its ghetto of 200 million or 300 million gamers, it will have to serve more diverse content than it ever has, to capture people like older players, international players in emerging markets and different cultures, and women. As it expands to mobile and free-to-play games, the industry should remember that it shouldn’t make just the same old franchises for the new players.

And as everybody becomes a gamer, the game market becomes bigger, the opportunity for each game is higher, and we will get better games of all kinds as a result — including better triple-A games.

The goose and the eggs

Dean Takahashi moderates a new IP panel with Shawn Layden, Ante Odic, and Marty O'Donnell.

Above: Dean Takahashi moderates a new IP panel with Shawn Layden, Ante Odic, and Marty O’Donnell.

Image Credit: GamesBeat

Layden, who had to oversee 13 first-party game studios for the PlayStation business, said that churning out sequels and providing fan service on important franchises is a necessary part of the business. But eventually, everyone comes around to realize the importance of doing original games.

“If we continue to make the same type of game over and over again, we will continue to appeal to the same audience we already have over and over again. We won’t be able to break out gaming into into a wider and larger business. We talk a lot about how video game business is the largest entertainment business in the world. But we really don’t punch above our weight when it comes to society and culture. And I think that’s because we don’t bring a diverse enough audience into enjoying gaming. And that’s why original intellectual property is important.”

Layden knows that going to a board of directors and pitching them a game that will cost $280 million to make over five years isn’t easy. That is a difficult pitch for anybody to make, no matter who you are. But those kinds of bets have to be made.

“It’s definitely problematic that the budgets have skyrocketed,” said one executive who participated in a secret roundtable at GamesBeat Summit 2021. “On the other end of the spectrum, that’s defensibility if you’ve got 10 million people playing every month. There are precious few that can assemble the budgets have the IP, have the distribution network, and the global brands to be able to compete in a market where people’s time is scarce.”

Grand Theft Auto Online: Arena Wars.

Above: Grand Theft Auto Online: Arena Wars.

Image Credit: Rockstar Games

A game like Grand Theft Auto V can sell 150 million units — a number that wasn’t possible more than a decade ago. So the upside is tremendous, and these franchises once established can give birth to live services, media spinoffs in adjacent entertainment markets, and high-margin mobile opportunities. The upside to that initial $280 million investment is tens of billions in additional market capitalization for the company that achieves it.

“If you perform at the highest level, and you have structural competitive advantages, it might actually be a virtue for the platform players at the top of the ecosystem to spend that much and deliver something that is polished and really, truly, triple-A,” he said. “You get a disproportionate share of a much, much bigger pie.”

Also on that panel was Ante Odic, senior vice president of product at Outfit7, the maker of the Talking Tom series and other games that have been downloaded 15 billion times. Even Outfit7 is investing to find the next Talking Tom as it knows that new IP is so critical. And just because it is investing in Talking Tom doesn’t mean that it isn’t investing in new IP. It’s not a zero-sum game.

“We have a wide audience,” Odic said. “But we want to go even wider.”

Marty O’Donnell, cofounder of Highwire Games and a former leader at Bungie, noted how the creative team wanted to move on from the successful Halo franchise to something new, so much so that they eventually spun Bungie out of Microsoft to be able to reach that aim.

“We wanted to do something new,” O’Donnell said. He reminded us of the fairy tale about the goose that laid the golden eggs. The important thing wasn’t the golden eggs. It was the goose. You don’t want to kill the goose laying the golden eggs, O’Donnell said.

“My slogan is be nice to the goose. And the goose is the team that lays the golden egg,” he said. “And being nice to the golden egg means you’re just going to make sequels that that are dead. But if you’re nice to the team that makes the lays the golden egg, that’s the only way to get really good new golden eggs. Certainly you don’t want to stab the goose and try to cut it open. But all I would ask for for publishers and developers is be nice to the goose because that’s how you’re going to get more eggs.”

A beautiful industry structure

DreamHaven is the new game company started by Mike and Amy Morhaime.

Above: DreamHaven is the new game company started by Mike and Amy Morhaime.

Image Credit: DreamHaven

And remember, if one company retreats from triple-A games, another may attack that opportunity. If Sony were to bail out of triple-A original games and shirk its responsibility, only to focus on sequels and free-to-play low-hanging fruit, it would lose its triple-A creators. They would go to another company like Nintendo or Microsoft or Epic Games or Valve or Ubisoft or Electronic Arts ….You get the point.

They could also seek creative freedom in indie games or start a new triple-A studio. That sort of thing is happening, as Harold Ryan has multiple triple-A games going at Probably Monsters. If Riot Games gets a little sleepy at innovation, the former Riot veterans at Theorycraft Games, which raised $37 million, or the scrappy ex-Riot team at Hidden Leaf Games will be happy to pick up the mantle and hire the Riot leaders who prefer to work on groundbreaking titles.

As I mentioned, a record amount of money is available to the game industry’s creators at all levels, from the newly minted public company Roblox that is worth $39.6 billion to Animoca Brands that has raised $88 billion at a $1 billion valuation to make NFT games to DreamHaven Games, founded by former Blizzard president Mike Morhaime and Amy Morhaime. The game industry has enough money pouring in at once to fund everything that it needs and to make every game that we want. It has never been like this before.

For gamers, don’t worry, be happy. And for game developers, heed what Layden said. “Find the best risks and take them. If you stay the course and keep true to the vision, you will be more delighted with the outcome.”

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GitHub now lets all developers upload videos to demo bugs and features

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GitHub now lets all developers upload videos to demo bugs and features

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GitHub has officially opened up video uploads five months after launching in beta, allowing all developers to include .mp4 or .mov files directly in pull requests, discussions, issues, comments, and more.

The feature is designed to help developers visually demonstrate to project maintainers the steps they went through when they encountered a bug, for example, or illustrate what a major new code change achieves in terms of functionality.

So rather than having to follow detailed step-by-step textual instructions which may be ambiguous or unclear, it’s now easier to see exactly what’s happening at the other end first-hand and should go some way toward avoiding time-consuming back-and-forth written discussions. This could also be used in conjunction with a voice track with a narrator explaining the on-screen actions.

Above: Video in GitHub

It’s worth noting that with this launch, GitHub also now fully supports video uploads from within its mobile app.

ezgif.com gif maker 2

Above: Uploading video to GitHub via mobile app

Seeing is believing

Native video upload support helps bypass the cumbersome alternative involving recording and uploading a video to a third-party platform, then sharing a link. On that note, GitHub actually doesn’t yet support video unfurling from shared links, but that is something it said that it’s working on, alongside enabling video annotations for specific pieces of code.

At a time when the world has had to adapt to remote work and collaboration, learning to embrace asynchronous communication is one of the fundamental factors for distributed teams to succeed — recorded video plays a big part in enabling this.

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Warhammer III hands-on — A journey into the Realm of Chaos

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Warhammer III hands-on -- A journey into the Realm of Chaos

Did you miss GamesBeat Summit 2021? Watch on-demand here! 


Sega Europe’s The Creative Assembly studio showed off a demo of Total War: Warhammer III at a press event, and I got to go hands-on with the game in a battle set in the Realm of Chaos.

Being launched later on this year in partnership with franchise owner Games Workshop, Warhammer III the latest in the Total War series. The franchise has sold more than 34.3 million copies to date. The Total War: Warhammer spinoff is a cataclysmic conflict between demonic powers and the sentinels of the mortal world. I played the first two games, and many others, in the Total War series. This game brings the Warhammer trilogy to its conclusion.

The Creative Assembly has been making Total War strategy games for more than two decades. Most of these have focused on historical wars; until recently, when they’ve expanded into myths such as Total War: Three Kingdoms and fantasy with the Warhammer titles. In a Total War strategy game, you move armies around on a strategic map and fight in a 3D real-time battle when they meet on the battlefield.

In Total War: Warhammer III, each choice the player makes will shape the conflict to come. You’ll explore the mysterious Lands of the East to the demon-infested Realms of Chaos.

“Warhammer III is of course the concluding chapter in the series and we’re planning on going out with a bang,” said Al Bickham, the development communications manager for The Creative Assembly, at a press event. “We’ve crafted a huge arching narrative which ties the trilogy together. There are going to be more playable races out of the box than the previous two games. And it’s all set across a hyper-detailed campaign map which begins at the very fringes of Warhammer lands and takes you deep into the mind-bending horrors of the four Realms of Chaos.”

The game will have iconic races from the World of Warhammer Fantasy Battles, including the video game debut of Kislev and Cathay alongside the factions of Chaos — Khorne, Nurgle, Slaanesh, and Tzeentch. This means players will wage war with the most diverse array of legendary heroes, gargantuan monsters, flying creatures, and magical powers.

Embarking on a new grand campaign, you will be tasked with saving or exploiting the power of a dying god. Each race offers a unique journey through the nightmarish Chaos Realm. The endgame will determine the fate of the world.

The Survival Battle

Above: Everything looks so orderly at the beginning of the Survival Battle in Warhammer III.

Image Credit: Sega/Creative Assembly

The Creative Assembly used the Parsec to let me play a sample Survival Battle, where your goal is to attack into the Realm of Chaos and take objectives and fend off the demon hordes. It’s a new kind of narrated battle that is fresh to the franchise. They’re like boss battles in Warhammer III, and they trigger after you reach key points in the game’s narrative.

“We want the [Survival Battle] to feel epic, really memorable, and full of decisive moments in the course of your campaign,” Bickham said.

My faction was the Kislev, an Eastern human faction that resembles the Russian Cossacks. And I had to take a number of victory locations within the a bloody fortress called the Brass Citadel.

The faction leader, Tzarina Katarin (the Ice Queen of Kislev) has taken her loyal forces into the Realm of Chaos. Khorne, the Chaos God of rage and war, sends a legion of demons to destroy the trespassers. The Kislev forces have been detailed for the first time in the series. Katarin is an Ice Witch with magical powers to both rally her troops and strike fear in the hearts of demons.

I wasn’t exactly impressed with the forces I got in the battle. There were some excellent sword troops, but I only have five companies of them in a place where I had to defend against attacks coming from all directions. I had twice as many archers and a few archer cavalry units.

The Realm of Chaos, of course, is a bad place. It has plenty of blood-red backdrops and one of its decorations is an actual fountain of blood. The four Ruinous Powers rule over this place, ever seeking to slip their bonds and engulf the world in a tide of daemonic corruption. Nurgle, the plague god; Slaanesh, the lord of excess; Tzeentch, the changer of ways; and Khorne, the god of blood and slaughter.

My troops had to fight uphill and sweep some light demon units from the top of a ridge. That was easy enough, and I claimed a victory point in doing so. That allowed me to draw reinforcements from another realm to strengthen my army. But then I was attacked from four directions. At least I was defending a hill, but I had a hard time figuring out where to place my five sword troops, as they were the best units to stave off attacks.

chaos 5

Above: My soldiers are devolving into chaos in Warhammer III.

Image Credit: Sega/Creative Assembly

The cavalry was useful in taking down wolf-borne demons from the enemy, but it wasn’t useful in charging headlong into enemy lines. Rather, it was better to use them to harass the enemy with missile fire from a distance. But I didn’t have nearly enough units to form a full line of defense in all directions. The result was, you guessed it, chaos.

But I tried to survive. One of the goals was to earn a battle currency called “supplies,” which allowed me to build towers and barricades. It also let me recruit new warriors, upgrade my existing units, and bring on reinforcements. Being new to the game, I couldn’t figure out how much to spend on each kind of task. I found I could build barricades and get reinforcements, but I didn’t have enough supplies to build towers, and that meant the hordes of Chaos were going to charge me without being harassed. You generate more supplies by capturing victory points or killing enemies.

Had I looked more, I would have seen that I could have used The Lore of Ice, or ice-themed spells that would slow down the enemy and help my soldiers thin their ranks as they tried to attack. There were six different spells altogether. I also could have used the Elemental Bear, a huge monster on my side, and some of the bear cavalry for the faction. Sadly they were nowhere to be found in my playthrough.

Still, after a few battle restarts, I was able to survive the first wave of attacks and open up a new part of the Brass Citadel, which was circular with a big pit in the middle. Once again, I was forced to divide my forces and try to hold off larger numbers of enemies coming from all sides. It wasn’t pretty.

I didn’t get near the goal of the battle, to fight Khorne’s champion, an Exalted Greater Demon, in a final struggle. It was a very difficult battle, but I enjoyed the idea of being assaulted by endless hordes and figuring out how to stay alive when you’re vastly outnumbered. This is a difficult mode when it comes to figuring out where to throw your troops and when. But it adds some excitement to the pressure that you feel when you have to make decisions quickly to head off disaster.

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