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GPT-3’s free alternative GPT-Neo is something to be excited about

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GPT-3's free alternative GPT-Neo is something to be excited about

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The advent of Transformers in 2017 completely changed the world of neural networks. Ever since, the core concept of Transformers has been remixed, repackaged, and rebundled in several models. The results have surpassed the state of the art in several machine learning benchmarks. In fact, currently all top benchmarks in the field of natural language processing are dominated by Transformer-based models. Some of the Transformer-family models are BERT, ALBERT, and the GPT series of models.

In any machine learning model, the most important components of the training process are:

  1. The code of the model — the components of the model and its configuration
  2. The data to be used for training
  3. The available compute power

With the Transformer family of models, researchers finally arrived at a way to increase the performance of a model infinitely: You just increase the amount of training data and compute power.

This is exactly what OpenAI did, first with GPT-2 and then with GPT-3. Being a well funded ($1 billion+) company, it could afford to train some of the biggest models in the world. A private corpus of 500 billion tokens was used for training the model, and approximately $50 million was spent in compute costs.

While the code for most of the GPT language models is open source, the model is impossible to replicate without the massive amounts of data and compute power. And OpenAI has chosen to withhold public access to its trained models, making them available via API to only a select few companies and individuals. Further, its access policy is undocumented, arbitrary, and opaque.

Genesis of GPT-Neo

Stella Biderman, Leo Gao, Sid Black, and others formed EleutherAI with the idea of making AI technology that would be open source to the world. One of the first problems the team chose to tackle was making a GPT-like language model that would be accessible to all.

As mentioned before, most of the code for such a model was already available, so the core challenges were to find the data and the compute power. The Eleuther team set out to generate an open source data set of a scale comparable to what OpenAI used for its GPT language models. This led to the creation of The Pile. The Pile, released in July 2020, is a 825GB data set specifically designed to train language models. It contains data from 22 diverse sources, including academic sources (Arxiv, PubMed, FreeLaw etc.), Internet webpages (StackExchange, Wikipedia etc.), dialogs from subtitles, Github, etc.

Source: The Pile paper, Arxiv.

For compute, EleutherAI was able to use idle compute from TPU Research Cloud (TRC). TRC is a Google Cloud initiative that supports research projects with the expectation that the results of the research will be shared with the world via open source code, models, etc.

On March 22, 2021, after months of painstaking research and training, the EleutherAI team released two trained GPT-style language models, GPT-Neo 1.3B and GPT-Neo 2.7B. The code and the trained models are open sourced under the MIT license. And the models can be used for free using HuggingFace’s Transformers platform.

Comparing GPT-Neo and GPT-3

Let’s compare GPT-Neo and GPT-3 with respect to the model size and performance benchmarks and finally look at some examples.

Model size. In terms of model size and compute, the largest GPT-Neo model consists of 2.7 billion parameters. In comparison, the GPT-3 API offers 4 models, ranging from 2.7 billion parameters to 175 billion parameters.
model size
Caption: GPT-3 parameter sizes as estimated here, and GPT-Neo as reported by EleutherAI.

As you can see, GPT-Neo is bigger than GPT-2 and comparable to the smallest GPT-3 model.

Performance benchmark metrics. EleutherAI reports that GPT-Neo outperformed the closest comparable GPT-3 model (GPT-3 Ada) on all NLP reasoning benchmarks.

GPT-Neo outperformed GPT-3 Ada on Hellaswag and Piqa. Hellaswag is an intelligent multi-choice sentence completion benchmark that has a context paragraph and four endings. Piqa measures common sense reasoning where the machine has to pick one out of two sentences that make the most sense. GPT-Neo also outperformed GPT-3 Ada on Winogrande, a benchmark that uses common sense to resolve ambiguous pronouns in a sentence.

However GPT-3 Davinci, the largest version of GPT-3, with about 65 times as many parameters, comfortably beats GPT-Neo in all the benchmarks, as you would expect.

benchmarks

Caption: Model metrics as reported by EleutherAI, except GPT-3 175B, which is from Open AI’s GPT-3 paper.

Examples. Let’s look at a few side-by-side examples of generated text from the largest GPT-3 model (from various GPT-3 Davinci examples found online) and GPT-Neo (that I generated using HuggingFace’s GPT-Neo 2.7B Transformers implementation).

The first example we will look at is completion of ELI-5 format sentences, where the text in italics was the prompt given to the model.

eli5

I would say both GPT-Neo and GPT-3 worked equally well in this example.

The next experiment is to check if GPT-Neo can correct grammatically incorrect sentences like GPT-3 can. Again the italicized parts are the prompt provided to the model.

grammar correction

Again, GPT-Neo worked great in correcting “eat” to “ate,” especially considering the model was not specifically trained to do this.

Finally, the famous “discovery of English-speaking unicorns” piece (GPT-2 version here and GPT-3 version here) reimagined and written by GPT-Neo. The prompt given to the model is in italics and bold.

In a shocking finding, scientists discovered a herd of unicorns living in a remote, previously unexplored valley, in the Andes Mountains. Even more surprising to the researchers was the fact that the unicorns spoke perfect English.

The only evidence was a single word: “hello.”

“The unicorns are very good listeners, so they learned to speak English from watching humans,” said Dr. David Orme, chief executive of the Zoological Society of London, in a press release. “In fact, they also learned to speak Spanish from watching humans. They said hello to us in both languages.”

While the discovery is stunning in and of itself, the news gets even more mind-blowing when you consider that the unicorns were there for thousands of years. They were “living fossils,” Orme said, which is a fancy way of saying that their origins have yet to be determined.

“It is extremely exciting that we now have evidence of a population of unicorns, that we know to be around and that is living,” Dr. John Fitzpatrick, a conservation and anthropology professor at the University of California, said in a press release. “This shows that they are not just a myth and that humans are not the only species on Earth to have developed language.”

The findings have been published in a new study in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

A ‘unicorn’ from the Andean mountains in Colombia. (Image: The Royal Society)

The discovery was made this summer in a remote but stunning valley in the Andean Mountains in Colombia called Bureta. It’s believed the unicorns were in their 20s. “It’s a very unusual place to find these animals and at the moment there is no evidence that humans have been there before,” Orme said.

The scientists said the unicorns had been living in that valley as long as their species has, which is estimated at at least 200,000 years.

This means the area’s rich history of megafauna, including dinosaurs, pterosaurs and saber-toothed cats, is still far from over.

“If it is true in a relatively isolated valley near Bureta Colombia that is more than 200,000 years old and now also having a population of these animals, then Bureta is truly a unique and special place,” Fitzpatrick said.

Once again, GPT-Neo was able to generate a coherent, almost-believable article without missing out on the central themes — unicorn discovery, the English-speaking aspect, the Andes, etc.

All in all, the performance metrics of GPT-Neo 2.7B in NLP benchmarks is better than GPT-3 2.7B (Ada), but much worse than the GPT-3 175B (Davinci). But qualitatively, GPT-Neo 2.7B’s completions and writing were as good as even GPT-3 175B (Davinci), the largest GPT-3 model.

The bottom line here is: GPT-Neo is a great open source alternative to GPT-3, especially given OpenAI’s closed access policy.

Abhishek Iyer is the founder of FreeText AI, a company specializing in text mining and review analysis.

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Sea of Thieves: A Pirate’s Life — 5 details you’ll want to know

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Sea of Thieves: A Pirate's Life -- 5 details you'll want to know

Elevate your enterprise data technology and strategy at Transform 2021.


Rare revealed A Pirate’s Life during E3 last week. This new adventure for Sea of Thieves will give players a chance to adventure with Pirates of Caribbean star Captain Jack Sparrow, and it’s coming to the Xbox and PC game as a free expansion on June 22.

Still, there is a lot about the experience that we don’t know. I was part of a recent virtual preview for A Pirate’s Life, and it gave me an opportunity to learn a lot more about Rare’s Disney crossover.

And so, much unlike a pirate, I’ve decided to share this treasure of knowledge with you all. I’ve picked out five of the most interesting nuggets that I learned from Rare.

You can play it by yourself

Are you a Pirates of the Caribbean fan who is worried about finding a crew of other players before starting A Pirate’s Life? Don’t be! Rare has created the story so that it can be enjoyed by one, two, three, or four players. The difficulty and gameplay will scale based on the size of your party.

Playing by yourself may still sound like a lonely experience for a game that prides itself on co-op multiplayer, but you will have Jack Sparrow along to help you. He’ll assist you during fights by manning the cannons, and if you’re exploring the open seas you can find him looking at your map and commenting on the names of the game’s many islands.

Above: Jack Sparrow isn’t the only familiar character you’ll encounter.

Image Credit: Rare

You can start the story with a new character

Maybe you want to try A Pirate’s Life, but you aren’t a Sea of Thieves player. You’ll be fine. Even new characters can start the campaign.

Granted, you do have to at least complete the game’s opening tutorial, so A Pirate’s Life can’t be the literal first thing that you do. Still, that shouldn’t take you too long.

You can’t play as Jack Sparrow

Sorry, you won’t be able to play as the captain himself. However, you will be able to buy Pirates of the Caribbean-themed cosmetics for your character, including Jack Sparrow’s famous pirate outfit.

Sea of Thieves is still a game about being your own pirate. It’s also still, well, Sea of Thieves. A Pirate’s Life doesn’t turn the experience into a full-on Pirates of the Caribbean game. Rather, it brings the Disney characters into Sea of Thieves’ world.

SoT Cine Shot Trident

Above: Jack acts as something of an AI crewmate during parts of the adventure.

Image Credit: Rare

No, that isn’t Johnny Depp

Jack Sparrow’s voice sounds convincing in the game, but it isn’t Johnny Depp you’re hearing. Rare hired Jared Butler for the role. The voice actor has voiced Jack before, including for 2019’s Kingdom Hearts III.

He also did the voice of the Mad Hatter in 2010’s Alice in Wonderland game (yes, they made a game based off of that movie), so he is an experienced Johnny Depp voice double.

It takes inspiration from the ride as well as the moves

I do like the Pirates of the Caribbean movies (some of them more than others), but my heart truly belongs to the original ride. So I was happy to hear that Rare is taking just as much inspiration from the Disneyland masterpiece.

You may have already noticed a tribute to the ride’s famous dog-and-key scene in the reveal trailer, but the game also has homages to other moments from the ride, including the mayor interrogation scene and the pirate ship attack. You’ll also hear a version of the eerie narration from before the ride’s second drop.

Oh, and you can also learn how to play the famous Pirates of the Caribbean song, “Yo Ho (A Pirate’s Life for Me).” That is reason enough for me  to play Sea of Thieves’ new adventure.

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Candy Shop Slaughter is a video game concept creatd by AI

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Candy Shop Slaughter is a video game concept creatd by AI

Elevate your enterprise data technology and strategy at Transform 2021.


It is possible for artificial intelligence to create a video game. Contrary to popular opinion and hopes for humanity, an AI came up with the basic design for a video game called Candy Shop Slaughter.

The game has all of the elements needed for success in the competitive mobile game industry. OnlineRoulette.com commissioned the project, which was created by Fractl, a South Florida growth marketing agency.

Games are thriving despite the pandemic and video game jobs are growing in spite of the competition from automation. Video games are a creative art, and it’s hard to believe that a machine can come up with the kind of creativity needed to make such a work. But we shouldn’t be too complacent about human ingenuity against the continuous improvement of AI.

That was part of the point of the project, said Kristin Tynski, cofounder of Fractl, in an interview with GamesBeat. The art for the game was created by Fractl’s artists. GPT-3 generated the text. With other AI projects, like JetPlay’s Ludo, AI is used to generate everything from the game art to the game characters and gameplay. It’s no longer the case that only humans can create games.

Joe Mercurio, creative strategy lead at Fractl, said in an interview with GamesBeat that he developed the idea and development of the project, and Tynski worked on the AI outputs. Their company is an agency that works on growth campaigns for companies.

“A year or two ago, we received access to Open AI technology, GPT-2, and then we got access to GPT-3,” said Mercurio. “We started fooling around with that. Kristin actually developed a full website that had a bunch of blog content that was completely AI-generated. We were just inspired to set up a bunch of different ideas. And for Online Roulette, we decided to explore a video game.”

Fractl’s creative team has always been interested in generative AI, and it saw GPT-2 and GPT-3 as a big advancement, Tynski said.

The agency created the game to see if people were interested in characters and gameplay created by the OpenAI program known as GPT-3, a text generator. Fractl used GPT-3 to create a hero character, bosses to battle, and friends to meet along the way in both story and arcade modes in Candy Shop Slaughter.

With the characters and gameplay created by GPT-3, OnlineRoulette then surveyed 1,000 gamers to find out if they would be willing to play it, how original they found the various aspects of the game, and whether they’d be willing to pay for it.

AI-developed story and arcade modes

Above: Candy Shop Slaughter characters were generated by AI.

Image Credit: Fractl

Using the OpenAI text generator GTP-3, Fractl created a story, arcade, and multiplayer mode for the fictional video game.

In the synopsis, the AI created the main character Freddy Skittle and his best friend Ted. In story mode, the game utilizes a karma system where players can accumulate experience points for all of the good actions they make along the way and lose experience points when they make poor choices. The more they progress, players can unlock additional characters with different strengths that appear in the game’s universe who can aid in the boss battles players will encounter.

In arcade mode, Candy Shop Slaughter turns into a classic 3D fighting game, where blood and guts are transformed into candy and treats and players can experience plenty of food puns and jokes along the way. Players start by creating characters from a template and have the opportunity to unlock new costumes and weapons as they play.

AI-created video game  characters

Fractl's team

Above: Fractl’s team

Image Credit: Fractl

The AI also imagined 12 unique characters, bosses, and companions players could encounter in Candy Shop Slaughter.

The main protagonist Freddy Skittle throws knives and uses a retractable pocketknife in close combat. Bosses to fight in various levels include Pie Cake, who throws spiked pie slices in battle; Honey Bun, who evolves into a massive honey monster; and M&M’s Candy, the final boss who utilizes sweet soda bottles and candy worms in battle.

“GPT-3’s capabilities are pretty astounding. And it demonstrates a pretty fundamental shift and in what generative AI is capable of,” Tynski said. “We’ve had a ton of fun doing this project and testing out the creative abilities of GPT-3 within the context of a specific idea.”

Will game developers lose their jobs to AI? Probably not real soon.

“AI is going to take a lot of jobs. And I think it’s going to transform all the other jobs,” said Tynski. “I think you’re always going to have to have a human that’s part of the creative process because I think other humans care who created it. What’s super cool about these technologies is they’ve democratized creativity in an amazing way. I think as a creator you can find something mutually beneficial in this technology.”

She added, “There are and will be a lot more companies that are basically packaging GPT-3 outputs of specific game styles or types, or use cases, and then they use and using that to create some sort of service.”

Gamer impressions

candy shop pie charts

Above: Gamer reactions to Candy Shop Slaughter.

Image Credit: Fractl

Seventy-seven percent of gamers indicated they would play Candy Shop Slaughter, and 65% of gamers would be willing to pay for the game.

When asked about its uniqueness, just 10% of gamers found it unoriginal or very unoriginal, while 54% said Candy Shop Slaughter was original, and 20% of gamers deemed it very original.

The most impressive part of Candy Shop Slaughter was the characters, which 67% of gamers ranked as high quality. Following the characters, more than half of gamers considered the overall game (58%), the storyline (55%), and the game title (53%) to be high quality.

Fifty-seven percent of gamers indicated Candy Shop Slaughter sounded more like a mobile game, while 43% believed it would be a console game. With the descriptions of gameplay in mind, 73% also said the story mode of the game sounded more appealing, compared to just 28% who felt more intrigued by the arcade mode.

With the descriptions and details of 12 different characters, 48% of gamers felt Freddy Skittle (the main character) sounded the most fun to play, followed by Cookie Sandwich (33%), Pie Cake (30%), and Honey Bun (30%).

Respondents were not informed that the video game, storylines, and characters were AI-generated.

“It wasn’t like we cherry-picked the results here,” Tynski said. “There were lots of other ones that we generally ended up generating later that were similarly good. It pulls from well-known tropes. It is pretty difficult for humans to differentiate the text that was generated by AI.”

OnlineRoulette.com got responses from 1,000 players. The survey was designed with the intent of having them rate the storylines and characters presented to them.

“As an agency, we see AI becoming a much more integrated piece of content generation and part of the creative process,” Tynski said. “I think we’re just starting to scratch the surface. And this is also at the same time is advancing very, very rapidly. So we just want to continue to explore what’s possible and, and help our clients to create cool things by integrating these new technologies.”

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GamesBeat’s creed when covering the game industry is “where passion meets business.” What does this mean? We want to tell you how the news matters to you — not just as a decision-maker at a game studio, but also as a fan of games. Whether you read our articles, listen to our podcasts, or watch our videos, GamesBeat will help you learn about the industry and enjoy engaging with it.

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How Azur Games grew its hypercasual games to 1.5B downloads

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How Azur Games grew its hypercasual games to 1.5B downloads

Elevate your enterprise data technology and strategy at Transform 2021.


Azur Games is one of those companies that has quietly become one of the top ten game publishers in the world with more than 1.5 billion downloads. It did so by pivoting into the emerging hypercasual games on mobile devices.

Now the company has more than 300 employees in Cyprus and Eastern Europe, said Dmitry Yaminsky, CEO of Azur Games, in an interview with GamesBeat. And in the first quarter, Azur’s Stack Ball and Hit Master 3D games were among the top-20 most downloaded games worldwide, according to measurement firm Sensor Tower.

During this successful run, Yaminsky found that while many hypercasual games remain big hits for about a month, they quickly fall off after that. But the downloads don’t go to zero. Rather, they fall to maybe 10% or 20% of the early numbers. And then they stay at that level of perhaps 100,000 downloads a month for a long time, giving the games a longer life and a more predictable revenue stream. And with so many games in the library and upcoming pipeline, Azur Games has a pretty good business that can sustain the employee base, Yaminsky said. Stack Ball is the biggest hit, with more than 300 million downloads, while WormsZome.io has more than 200 million downloads.

But the competition isn’t easy. There are rivals like Voodoo Games, SayGames, Rollic, and others.

Origins

Above: Modern Strike was the first hit by Azur Games.

Image Credit: Azur Games

Yaminsky previously worked in the advertising industry, but decided to move into games after a downturn struck in 2014 and 2015.

Yaminsky formally started the game publisher in 2016 in Moscow to publish midcore games, or those with hardcore themes but can be played in short cycles on mobile devices. The company found a studio that was working on a title called Modern Strike Online, a mobile take on Counter-Strike. And they helped them with the launch with marketing at first.

That game became a huge hit with more than 70 million downloads, and Azur Games acquired half of the development studio.

“It was very successful. And with the launch of the game, I decided to work on other games. And so after the company started as a mobile publisher, and then we started our own development,” he said.

In 2017, hypercasual games — which take perhaps a minute to play — started taking off, thanks to new game companies like Voodoo Games. He moved the headquarters to Cyprus.

“We didn’t really know how to approach user acquisition for the new market at the time, so we decided to fund and conduct an experiment — two people from the team made a hypercasual game that became a hit,” Yaminsky said. “It turned out that two or three people can create a project with better metrics than a team of 60 in the midcore segment. That was our pivot.”

In the first experiment, one person worked on programming and another on art. It took about a month to finish the game. On its first day, the game generated $1,000 in advertising revenue. On the second day, it was $2,000.

“Then we started acquiring users,” he said. “Back then it was just so easy. There were so few competitors. A lot of people said it was impossible. I said it was my money. Let me waste it. In fact, the first game I launched was a real success.”

Growing the business

Azur Games' employees in Cyprus.

Above: Some of Azur Games’ employees in Cyprus.

Image Credit: Azur Games

Some companies started churning out games like factories. It was relatively easy to grow in hypercasual at that time since the market was small and the developers were very enthusiastic about presenting their games.

That’s when we knew we needed to stand out from the other publishers and tried to see the teams for their potential, refine the prototypes, and accumulate expertise within the company,” Yaminsky said. “This was a breath of fresh air for the industry, since most publishers at that time just looked at the first metrics — if they were good, then they took the project, if not, they sent it back to the developer.”

Azur Games started to build an ecosystem that would be comfortable for the developers and grow projects within it. It shared its experience and actively helped budding studios and solo developers to enter the market. As a result, the marketing budgets grew, the studios learned to trust Azur Games, and the company began attracting a lot of new developers.

While the headquarters is in Cyprus, the team is spread out, with back offices in Dubai and Moscow. Most of the people work remotely, which helps the company grow quickly. About 50 people work in marketing and analytics, while a team of 30 motion designers work on creative ads that help the games spread. About 200 people work on midcore projects, which can have higher margins.

azur 3

Above: Azur Games has lots of hypercasual titles.

Image Credit: Azur Games

“We’re trying to pave our own way,” Yaminsky said. “Many companies on the market are still waiting for finished projects with good metrics. But we at Azur Games believe in teams and improve the projects ourselves.”

While hypercasual games still provides most of the downloads, Azur Games has diversified into the casual game and midcore game segments. Those games will start coming out in the coming months and years.

The hypercasual department consists of several mini-teams, which include a producer, two or three product assistants, and two or three game designers. Each mini-team works with a limited number of studios.

“We prototype about 200 games a month, and after we test them, we launch about one or two games per month,” Yaminsky said. “In other words, to get a lot of downloads, you need to do a lot of work, which isn’t always visible from the outside.”

Staying ahead of competitors

Worm

Above: WormZome.io is one of Azur’s games.

Image Credit: Azur Games

Now that hypercasual is a big market, companies like Zynga have acquired hypercasual firms like Rollic, and the market is crowded.

“You can win as a company only if you share your expertise with developers more than the others, run tests faster, use your own analytics, and invest your skills and experience in development,” Yaminsky said. “We put the emphasis on communication and providing the necessary resources: for example, if the team doesn’t have motion designers, game designers or artists, we involve them as needed.”

In other words, the current strategy is to offer favorable conditions and development infrastructure within its ecosystem. This means that the company is willing to share anything that could help the developers make the right decision, trend-tracking data being one example. At the same time, the company never reworks the games for the studios and it only suggests the direction.

That means the company has to find the right teams to build long-term, mutually beneficial relationships. It has invested more than $10 million in developers to date. Many of the developers are in Eastern Europe, where companies have learned to move quickly and efficiently without running up high costs, Yaminsky said. There are also a lot of educated programmers in the region.

“First and foremost, we always assess the potential. If it’s there, we’re ready to invest our own efforts and substantial amounts of money,” Yaminsky said. “For instance, if there’s a studio with annual revenue of up to $5 million, we’re ready to invest up to $10 million for a 20% to 30% stake, even more in some cases. Meanwhile, the studio stays in control of the project, and we only help to grow it in all directions, including marketing.”

azur 5

Above: Azur Games prototypes 200 games a month.

Image Credit: Azur Games

By 2019, the market got a lot more competitive, and now it is even more heated. In the month of May, the company spent more than $15 million in marketing. The company also tries to offer the developers more favorable terms than others do, like paying well for each prototype. This allows them to cover development costs, so they can feel comfortable and try more things than they would in a different setting, Yaminsky said.

“When it comes to the product strategy, we aim at increasing lifetime value of users and paying more attention to in-app monetization,” he said. “This means we’re planning to do deeper projects, but we always take the studio resources into account — if the developer doesn’t have a lot of experience, they work on simple mechanics.”

A hit game can get 300,000 to 500,000 downloads a day, but Yaminsky believes that the long-term matters a lot. In the long tail for a hit, a game can generate $100,000 to $400,000 a month. With 10 to 30 such hits, the long tail generates a consistent revenue that is in the millions of dollars a month.

Now the company is looking for more game studios to invest in to keep generating more hits.

“The number of competitors keeps growing, and we have to stay competitive,” Yaminsky said.

GamesBeat

GamesBeat’s creed when covering the game industry is “where passion meets business.” What does this mean? We want to tell you how the news matters to you — not just as a decision-maker at a game studio, but also as a fan of games. Whether you read our articles, listen to our podcasts, or watch our videos, GamesBeat will help you learn about the industry and enjoy engaging with it.

How will you do that? Membership includes access to:

  • Newsletters, such as DeanBeat
  • The wonderful, educational, and fun speakers at our events
  • Networking opportunities
  • Special members-only interviews, chats, and “open office” events with GamesBeat staff
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  • And maybe even a fun prize or two
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